Marketing programs emphasize courses in communication; marketing students will also practice and develop their communications and presentation skills in other classes. Communications courses teach students how to connect to audiences through a wide variety of media channels. You’ll also receive invaluable instructor feedback that will help you to further improve your skills and adapt your message.
World Global Network is a publicly traded company that recently released a wearable health monitor similar to a Fitbit but with more features. The HELO currently measures blood pressure, heart rate, breath rate, sleep, EKG, mood and steps. It also has a panic button that if pressed twice it will alert you loved ones of your location using GPS. In the near future it will measure blood glucose and blood alcohol without using a blood sample. It will also have a mosquito shield.
Meet Toni Vanschoyck & James (Jay) Treloar Toni Vanschoyck has been working with start up Network Marketing companies for more than 19 years and her husband Jay Treloar left his corporate job three years ago to join in the business. Currently, they have helped to build more than $500 million in organization sales in just over three years. Go Pr ...…
The end result of the MLM business model is, therefore, one of a company (the MLM company) selling its products/services through a non-salaried workforce ("partners") working for the MLM company on a commission-only basis while the partners simultaneously constitute the overwhelming majority of the very consumers of the MLM company's products/service that they, as participants of the MLM, are selling to each other in the hope of one day themselves being at the top of the pyramid. This creates great profit for the MLM company's actual owners and shareholders.
These nonsalaried workers may be stay-at-home parents, college students or part-time workers hoping to make money by selling products such as vitamins and makeup to their friends and family. But experts note that just selling products is typically not enough to make a profit, and workers are encouraged to recruit a "downline," a team of underlings from whose sales they also earn a commission, creating a pyramid-shaped compensation structure.
For example, most successful people building a network marketing business do so in an organized method. They work a few dedicated hours each week, with each hour of effort serving as a building block for their long-term business growth. Then they sponsor other people and teach those people how to sell the company product and sponsor others who duplicate the process.
Please note it is my personal policy to identify readers who respond to questions I ask in my newsletters. I find it encourages thoughtful and civil conversation. I want my newsletters to be a safe place to express your opinion. On sensitive matters or upon request, I’m happy to include just your first name and/or last initial. But I prefer not to post anonymous comments (I do make exceptions when I’m asking questions that might reveal sensitive information or cause conflict.)
At the corporate level, MLM professionals develop an easily communicated mission and image, and create resources that facilitate that communication. The key to knowing how to communicate this message to customers is knowing and understanding them. Therefore, effective MLM begins with data, and builds upon that data throughout a campaign. With the sales and customer information generated at each presentation, companies can better discern what products to acquire and/or develop, how to best portray them to their audience, and how to tailor their message to different market segments.
*  Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession.  Join us December 4-6, at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.  You will hear from top international thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell, and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners.  It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can’t afford to miss.  To learn more, go to GoProRecruiting.com.
Younique is a network marketing company that offers a reseller program for marketers who are willing to help distribute its rich blend of cosmetics products. The cosmetics company is known for its budget-friendly products which appeal to the female folk. One of Younique’s marketers’ strategies is the organisation of house parties where women are then introduced to various products of the company; that strategy really works, by the way.
His unquenchable desire to live life to the fullest pushed him to develop a strategy for success in life, not unlike the formula he created for his venture studio. Following his life plan for happiness, balance and love while still achieving greatness in his career, Dyrdek now enjoys a fulfilling life with his family in Beverly Hills and continues to build his dream as he had not only envisioned, but designed it.
(May 2017 update: did this go under?) The sign up cost will make you do a triple take (almost four figures), but you get to set your own retail price on every product you sell. If you’ve got the skills to make people cough up the cash for their products (which, btw, are pretty legit), you could definitely make that money back. They’ve also been winning plenty of awards (even a growth award from the Direct Selling Association themselves).
Yes, you might want to learn the overview of it so you’re knowledgable and understand how your checks are getting formulated, but I’ve met too many successful networkers who can’t explain comp plans to spend any real time on them. When people ask questions, I refer them to the documentation that’s available and ask them if they’re ready to start a business they can work from home – even online in most cases.

The products produced by the California Vitamin Company were in such high demand that founder Carl Rehnborg began recruiting independent distributors to increase the number of salespeople. These independent distributors were instructed to find new distributors in their circles of friends, acquaintances, and customers. The representatives were paid on the sales of the distributors they personally recruited.


Question your recruiter. When you've found a company you're interested in, you'll likely meet with a recruiter or another representative. Be skeptical during the recruitment process. Remember that your sponsor makes more money if you sign on, so he may not be as open with you as he could be. Don't get distracted by promises of how much money you'll make and really think about what you're about to do.[4]
Each distributor is essentially an independent business owner, or more accurately put, an independent sales representative. Each representative gets paid for sales he or she makes, as well as sales made by each person he or she has recruited. Network marketers often earn bonuses for acquiring new distributors and customers and residual income on repeat business.
If you remember those ads for P90X and Insanity, you are not alone because they were something to rave about at one point in time.  They have dropped off a tad, but nonetheless Beachbody is still a well-known name.  The company is so focused on their products, very few people know that they are a network marketing company.  Which can be seen as an advantage for the company’s survival, but they are questionable as a “hot offer” to advertise.
This “outlier” experience helped him to develop and grow both his own brands and increase the value of his brand partners as he was quickly becoming an influential professional skateboarder. By leveraging his influence and designing new concepts and ideas, he helped turn a rising footwear and apparel brand into a $500 million international company. He used that same expertise to build skate brands later in his career launching the world's first true professional skateboarding league Street League Skateboarding and a first of its kind skateboarding channel, ETN.
Thank you for sharing your perspective on the Direct Sales/MLM companies. As a business owner and entrepreneur, there is often a lot of noise from many sources about what is the best way to grow and be of importance. One of the things I have learned and continue to learn is that we must really love what we do, believe in our offering, whether is it a product or service, and listen closely to our gut instincts. A business coach of mine once said being a prism is beautiful, but it is scattered light, focus on what you love. Another important thing to know for yourself , is that there are different learning styles. If you choose to join any company, MLM or otherwise, be clear with yourself how you best learn and thrive. Getting swept up in the cheering may feel good, and it may keep you motivated on some level, however, be clear on how do you retain knowledge and use it. If a company has a one size fits all approach, be very careful that you do not get swept away. Thank you again for sharing this information. It has helped me have another look at my goals and how to continue focusing on what I love to do.
Products that work on anti-ageing are usually not cheap and but the major downside is that they rarely ever do anything meaningful. But the case of Jeunesse is quite different since reviews have been good. Network marketers are given the opportunity to sell the products of this company for a commission. Now, who wouldn’t be interested in buying a body cream that makes them look just a little younger?
You can contact me too. I am with a solid company with good honest testimonies about the products. I am in a group with one of my team members who had rheumatoid arthritis. I know her personally. She has had great results. I can let you talk to her if you like. Our products seem to do well with arthritis and other health issues. I would love to talk to you if you are interested.
Of course the book isn't perfect. It could certainly benefit by showing how social media can fit in to your tool kit-- and this is something that Worre does go into outside of his book. Also his online trainings and videos fill in a lot of the gaps, such has his "blitz" strategies that I've seen other people use to go right to the top of our organization in a very short time.
A good MLM will have more than a few products to sell. They will have more than market sector covered (not just nutritional supplements, water filters or essential oils). They will also have other major retailers that they market for. The money those major corporations spend on the annual marketing, will be paid out to the MLM and their distributors for their sales & marketing efforts and results. That is where those companies will get
His unquenchable desire to live life to the fullest pushed him to develop a strategy for success in life, not unlike the formula he created for his venture studio. Following his life plan for happiness, balance and love while still achieving greatness in his career, Dyrdek now enjoys a fulfilling life with his family in Beverly Hills and continues to build his dream as he had not only envisioned, but designed it.
You can contact me too. I am with a solid company with good honest testimonies about the products. I am in a group with one of my team members who had rheumatoid arthritis. I know her personally. She has had great results. I can let you talk to her if you like. Our products seem to do well with arthritis and other health issues. I would love to talk to you if you are interested.

This might not look great on a resume. If you think working for an MLM company is a way to build your resume or patch a hole in your work experience, think twice about that idea, experts say. Does direct selling look good on a resume? "Probably not," Mariano says. "And the reason I say that is the reputation of direct selling in the marketplace is not typically that great."
(Update: In April of 2017 there was an article posted about this company, so as of May 2017 it is unsure if this company has gone under.)  First off, to sign up and become an affiliate of the company you might do a double or triple or quadruple take at the startup cost (which is almost 4 figures).  However, you do get to truly set up your own business, because you can set the price on all the products you sell.  If you have that business talent to make consumers buy the products (which are legit btw) you can certainly make that start-up cost back in no time.  This company has also been achieving some high praise by being the recipient of many awards (including a growth award from the Direct Selling Association).
As people get to retirement age, most realise they are not prepared. Many have little-to-no savings or investments, and routinely assume that they will just live on Social Security or some other government retirement plan. The problem in relying on this is that no one ever contemplated that MOST people would live into their 80’s or even beyond. An amazing statistic to consider is that if you make it to 25 years of age, your average life expectancy is 85. And this life span will only continue to extend further over time, further exacerbating the problem. 

The cons of mlm are that most people getting into mlm don’t understand mlm. They apply the incorrect philosophy and it becomes a recipe for disaster. I see dozens of people monthly that join a mlm, don’t work and don’t yield any results and as a result, leave with a bad taste. But with correct leadership that problem could be averted. That is precisely why I love my company. It has the best leadership (in my opinion) and they properly train their agents.

Thoroughly enjoyed reading your mlm breakdowns and the comments, thank you Jeremy. Had a successful mlm business but had to make a decision to give it up or have a breakdown due to ongoing upline bullying so at a big crossroads at the minute. being an ‘older’ lady here in the north of England doesn’t bode well for conventional job hunting in the current economic climate so some serious thinking needed on my part and QUICKLY lol. Thanks again Jeremy x


From the analytics I gathered from social media, Isagenix is really becoming a trend among the network marketing companies that offer a reseller program. The question is, what product does this MLM company has to sell? Isagenix has plenty of nutritional supplements that are too many to mention in this post; products such as healthy food products, anti-aging skin care products and energy supplements have received impressive product reviews on reputable websites like Amazon.

* Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession. Join us December 4-6, at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. You will hear from top international thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell, and dozes of Million-Dollar Earners. It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can’t afford to miss. To learn more, go to GoProRecruiting.com.

Another growing reality that could benefit MLM and related businesses is the increasing number of baby boomers who are disenchanted with their current careers.  They’re worn-out from years of the corporate grind and don’t feel the connection between their job and the people it impacts outside their office walls or company grounds.  They’re shifting their focus from accumulating a giant nest egg to a desire to be part of something bigger and better… to have a positive effect on others... and working in retirement.  Facets of life that can be fulfilled with specific types of products and service available through some MLM or Direct selling opportunities.

That same approach to brand development led him to co-create and executive produce his first television show, Rob & Big on MTV. After the success of this first show, he created Rob Dyrdek’s Fantasy Factory showcasing his Do-Or-Dier mentality towards entrepreneurship. Constantly evolving and taking calculated risks, Dyrdek beat world records with his physical feats while continuing his endeavors, launching several new brands while structuring multi-platform integrated partnerships.

doTERRA was named among America’s best employers by Forbes in 2016 and was named 2016 International Company of the Year by World Trade Association of Utah. But aside the accolades, doTERRA products which include an impressive collection of essential oils are selling like wildfire in America. It is predicted that doTERRA marketers will reach greater heights in 2017.

This one is debatable. Based on my observations, companies tend to do better when they have a physical presence for the corporate team to work. The idea of a “cloud based” office sounds nice, but in my opinion, it’s a little cheap and leads to less production. I think it’s important for executives to provide a consistent environment for people to come together during normal office hours and focus intensely on their duties to the company. There’s value in people coming together daily in a physical environment, sparking ideas off of each other at random times. If there’s no physical location, the company, in my opinion, is typically unable to adapt and change quick enough to stay ahead of the competition.
MLMs are designed to make profit for the owners/shareholders of the company, and a few individual participants at the top levels of the MLM pyramid of participants. According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), some MLM companies already constitute illegal pyramid schemes even by the narrower existing legislation, exploiting members of the organization.[21] There have been calls in various countries to broaden existing anti-pyramid scheme legislation to include MLMs, or to enact specific anti-MLM legislation to make all MLMs illegal in parallel to pyramid schemes, as has already been done in some jurisdictions.[citation needed]
They’re sliding, though. Revenue is falling in North America and their sales force is shrinking. Revenue slid 19% in 2013 and 7% in Mexico. Skip ahead to July 2015 and revenue is still spiraling downward, with a 17% drop (5). Analysts blame Avon’s failure to maintain a strong identity for its products as well as the strong dollar. Lesson: Always re-create yourself.
Some people may think this is the definition of a pyramid scheme, or believe that Multilevel Marketing (aka MLM) is synonymous with Pyramid Scheme. However, there is a massive distinction between MLM and Pyramid Schemes. You wouldn’t call Mary Kay Cosmetics, or AVON a pyramid scheme, would you? Both of those companies are prime examples of Network Marketing or MLM companies. The distinction comes in how the company compensates its employees or distributors. When a Network Marketing company’s primary compensation is for recruiting rather than selling, then it could very well be considered a pyramid scheme, which actually, is illegal.

Thank you for your article. I am also with doterra and I never in my life thought I would do something like this. The reason I started was because of health issues that led me to the oils. I have been an RN for 23 years and I feel more free and excited to share about health than ever. If you are going into something to get rich quick, I think that is the wrong attitude. I think most of my fellow doterra wellness advocates, have come to the same realization as me. I believe most of us started out trying to help ourselves and our families. I left my nursing job of 17 years in Feb, not because I am making enough money to replace my past income, but because I truly love helping others and I love the company and what it stands for. I can’t argue about MLM’s because I truly don’t care about that side of it. Maybe I am wrong to think that way. I hope that this ride doesn’t end anytime soon because the difference that doterra is making in my life, and the lives of those around me, is amazing. Thank you again for your information and your viewpoint.
BRAND NEW COMPANY – Soft launch not even 30 days in – already breaking records for number of brand partners joining this business. First in the industry with its cutting edge technology for their all natural health and wellness products with a delivery system into the body for quick response and maximum absorption – so nothing is wasted or flushed away! Suggested for ages 4 years on up!!! And the founder has a proven track record of historical success in the industry! I would love to have you join me in this amazing adventure to freedom in so many definitions of the word – nothing to lose and everything to gain! What are you waiting for?

When you hit over a billy in annual sales, that’s reason enough to be on the shortlist. On top of that, they’ve been in the MLM game for over two decades, and they’re now the “largest online wellness shopping club” (basically just sounds like a fancy way of saying they sell a lot of miracle diet pills…for our rankings of the best women diet pills are here).
Looking compliant is easy. Building a CULTURE around compliance is hard. Building a culture requires doing more than paying lip service to compliance. It requires full buy-in at the corporate level to teach and enforce the important policies. It requires field leaders committed to responsible growth, and corporate leaders that avoid saying things like “the lawyers make us do this.” And finally, it requires constant investment.

Even while the popular culture’s view of MLMs is shifting, FitzPatrick doesn’t think we’re yet at a tipping point where consumers reject them en masse. Trump’s election may help explain why. After the election, FitzPatrick says he sent out a newsletter to the many victims of pyramid schemes who’ve come to him for help, explaining the connections with Trump.
Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession.  Join us December 4-6 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.  You will hear from top thought leaders including Magic Johnson and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners.  It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can't afford to miss.
Eric Worre sits down with Gloria Mayfield Banks and talks about the “it” factor. Gloria shares her view on what the defining characteristics are of the high achievers. What does it take for a person to excel in Network Marketing? Gloria shares that it’s not your personality. She’s seen all types of personalities at the top of the game. It’s abo ...…

That brings up another difference between traditional franchises and MLMs: When you own a traditional franchise, you’re not pressured to recruit other people to become fellow franchisees. In fact, if you did that, it could ruin your chances at economic success because you’d be competing with multiple business owners for the same customers. Also, that would be an illegal franchise pyramid scheme.

*  Go Pro Recruiting Mastery – the world’s #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession.  Join us December 4-6, at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.  You will hear from top international thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell, and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners.  It’s an extraordinary event that you and your team can’t afford to miss.  To learn more, go to GoProRecruiting.com.
Network marketers may also find a degree in marketing or business administration very useful. A degree program in marketing helps students understand the consumer market and the factors that influence consumer-purchasing decisions. A degree in business administration prepares students to plan and direct the everyday operations of small businesses and large corporations.
Now this company is a true innovator in the MLM industry.  Their product: Herbal supplement capsules. Where can you find them? Everywhere! The pair that were the first to do it was a husband and wife that are behind Natures Sunshine.  If you visit a local health food store (or your yoga fanatic friend’s medicine cabinet) you are bound to find their product and proof of how well-known they truly are.
I see Melaleuca on here. I see that as both good and bad. They are an awesome company with a great compensation plan. However, they are not an MLM. They are not even listed with the federal agency that oversees those companies. They are a Consumer Direct Marketing company. How does that differ? While I am required to purchase a certain amount each month, that’s all I need to purchase. It’s all products I use in my own home for myself. I don’t have a monthly quota to meet. I don’t have to buy product and sell it to people. The idea is that the product goes to the consumer only. In fact, it’s against company policy to buy product and sell it to others. The only comparison I see are the “levels” of customerS in my group. Can you shed any light on why you think they are an MLM? Thanks, so much!
Nutritional supplements are not classified as either “foods” or “drugs”. They’re not foods because you don’t eat them for sustenance (you eat them to “supplement” your existing diet). And they’re not drugs because they’re not intended to treat any condition. The FDA largely ignores the industry, which means MLMs don’t face the same harsh regulations as food or drug providers in other industries.
Hi Jeimy. Fuxion is an excellent company. Fuxion is a Peruvian company that is spread in 12 countries, including the US. Randy Gage has decided to join Fuxion as a networker 2 weeks ago! Robert Kiyosaki and John Maxwell are current Fuxion’s advisors. Fuxion’s nutraceutical products are made of fruits and vegetables from the Amazon region, Andean region, Central America and Asia. The company is in its best moment. So I recommend you to join us!
The overwhelming majority of MLM participants (most sources estimated to be over 99.25% of all MLM participants) participate at either an insignificant or nil net profit.[12] Indeed, the largest proportion of participants must operate at a net loss (after expenses are deducted) so that the few individuals in the uppermost level of the MLM pyramid can derive their significant earnings—earnings which are then emphasized by the MLM company to all other participants to encourage their continued participation at a continuing financial loss.[13]
“Fast forward 10 years or so from the home equity line of credit losing, after we had paid off our home mortgage, we were in the process selling our home and purchasing another home,” he wrote. “We had to close the unused line of credit. We had to get a satisfaction letter to move forward with the new home purchase. We were fortunate that we never had a need to tap into the line of credit for any purpose, including educating our children. While a home equity line of credit may be beneficial and perhaps needed by some we simply decided to live within budget and never had to use [it] for any purpose.”
If you need something just see if this company has it, because chances are they do.  They are recognized for their greatly discounted product one-stop-shop, as they are wealthy CEOs.  The CEOs have made it to the Forbes list, drive nice cars, live in mansions in Biscayne Bay, penthouses in Manhattan, and are well-known with celebrities…I could go on, but you get the picture, right?  And this is all in credit to their MLM.  They’ve hit snags in their past with the SEC, but at the end of the day they just kept going, and they’re going strong.  Market America still managed to make it onto the DSN Global 100 at the 29th position.
Another growing reality that could benefit MLM and related businesses is the increasing number of baby boomers who are disenchanted with their current careers.  They’re worn-out from years of the corporate grind and don’t feel the connection between their job and the people it impacts outside their office walls or company grounds.  They’re shifting their focus from accumulating a giant nest egg to a desire to be part of something bigger and better… to have a positive effect on others... and working in retirement.  Facets of life that can be fulfilled with specific types of products and service available through some MLM or Direct selling opportunities.

Owner Two develops a business that also sells $100 USD worth of goods each month. Like Owner One, Owner Two receives a bonus for his sales volume on top of any retail profit he has made. By sponsoring Owner Two, Owner One who has generated $100 USD of sales, is also credited for the $100 USD produced by Owner Two. Therefore Owner One’s total business sales volume is considered to be $200 USD.
Younique is a network marketing company that offers a reseller program for marketers who are willing to help distribute its rich blend of cosmetics products. The cosmetics company is known for its budget-friendly products which appeal to the female folk. One of Younique’s marketers’ strategies is the organisation of house parties where women are then introduced to various products of the company; that strategy really works, by the way.
But many people can’t recruit enough folks and they end up spending a lot of their own money. As Laryea points out, “Recruits are often expected to purchase ‘starter kits’ or inventory to start selling products, which also earn the recruiters (and the recruiters’ recruiter) commission. Thus, multilevel marketing as a business strategy incentivizes participants to grow a sales network underneath them, also called a downline.”

In most cases, you can sign up to become a Network Marketing Distributor online, by making an initial investment and completing an ‘Independent Distributor Agreement.’ When you do sign up with a Network Marketing company, you are not considered an employee, usually, but seen as a representative, a dealer or a consultant (depending on the type of company you are representing). You may even consider yourself as a business owner.
I have a very successful doTERRA team and am looking for international partners in Europe. The opportunity for growth is immense! I was able to create a six figure income in just over 2 years. I am seeing amazing growth on my US team and I want to take this incredible opportunity abroad. If you are a motivated individual who is passionate about helping people, please get in touch.
Mentor your recruits effectively. If recruits are successful, you make more money, so you should be prepared to train them well. This may be a substantial time commitment, even up to several weeks. But you should understand that you're building a team and it is in your best interest to spend enough time making sure your recruits are competent enough to go off on their own.[8][9]
I’m from the uk. I am a Matron in a GP practice and have been approached by Arbonne. Ur video confirms most of my thoughts although doing aesthetics as a side line I though I might be able to run along side that and so not have to approach family n friends as that is horrendous!!! – i am really interested in ur local league marketing though – how would I find out more about this
Fast-forward a few years to today and history has proven Robert's prediction to be absolutely correct - Network Marketing has absolutely been on an upward trajectory over the past few years, in terms of numbers of people involved, sales turnover generated, and standards & professionalism in the industry. The companies, products, regulations, people and overall integrity within the Network Marketing industry have all advanced, and much as the franchising industry evolved from early shady practices to where today half of every high street or shopping mall comprises franchised businesses that are accepted and trusted by all, so it is that more and more people are coming around to seeing Network Marketing as a credible business model that they can utilise to achieve their various goals in life.
In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s (after WWII) the concept of a franchise business gained traction. In a franchise, you rent the business model that someone else (Franchisor) has perfected. One of the very first franchises was started by John Pemberton in 1886 when he created a beverage with a secret recipe and licensed bottling territories to others. This became Coca Cola. Rexall Drug Stores and even General Motors started out as Franchises. As in any new industry or business model there are abuses by unethical promoters and business persons (think of the robber barons and anti-trust regulations). By the 1960’s franchising was getting a black eye. Deceptive sales practices, double selling the same franchise territories to different persons and financial insolvency of the Franchisor were rampant. Eventually, in 1979 federal regulation came into play. The unscrupulous and under-funded Franchisors went away and the legitimate players who complied with the FTC regulations changed and became giants. (Think Subway, McDonalds and others.)

Network marketing is a legitimate business. First, it's based on providing people with real, legitimate products they need and want at a fair price. While some people do make a lot of money through network marketing, their financial benefit is always the result of their own dedicated efforts in building an organization that sells real products and services.
Jim’s friend who recruited him into the company starts telling Jim that the way you really start making money with Company A is recruiting other people beneath you to sell shakes. “When you sign someone up,” explains Jim’s friend, “you will start getting a 10% commission on the product your recruit is required to buy from Company A in order to qualify as a distributor. If you can get 3 people to sign up, it means you would be earning 10% commission on all the product those 3 recruits are required to buy, plus whatever they purchase beyond that minimum.”
×