This is not a ringing endorsement for the entire industry.  Like any investment of time, money, and energy, people need to be aware of what they are getting into and do their homework.  That’s the primary reasons I began researching the topic by reaching out to regular everyday people involved in these types of businesses and who were willing to skip the hype and offer a transparent view of the programs and give their opinions as to whether this can be a realistic source of retirement income.
A: To help you understand what network marketing is, I must first explain what it isn't. First, network marketing isn't a pyramid scheme. Pyramids are programs similar to chain letters where people just invest money based on the promise that other people will put in money that will filtrate back to them and somehow, they'll get rich. A pyramid is strictly a money game and has no basis in real commerce. Normally, there's no product involved at all, just money changing hands. Modern-day pyramids may have a product, but it's clearly there just to disguise the money game.
Nevertheless, misconceptions and myths persist. Don’t let these false beliefs stop you from considering a network marketing business. You can achieve success in a network marketing venture if avoid common MLM mistakes, gain a solid understanding of the industry, choose a company carefully, find a quality sponsor, and commit time and effort to your business. 
But MLMs can get away with this because of the second big difference between a traditional franchise and an MLM “franchise”: In a traditional franchise, the end customer is the consumer, whereas again, the primary way you make money in an MLM is by recruiting other sales people and making commissions off the product they’re required to purchase from the parent company

So you meet your buddy at a burger joint. You reminisce about old times and play catch-up. You’re having a real good time. But then he mentions this nutrition company he’s been selling for lately. He says he’s just getting started, but there’s a lot of income potential. In fact, he knows a guy who has paid off his mortgage working for this company. He thinks you’d be a perfect distributor for it because you lift weights and you’re driven.
FLP may not be the wealthiest MLM on this list, but they deserve a spot because of their long-term dedication to the aloe vera plant and products made from it. Few MLMs display such product dedication and integrity as FLP. And few MLM’s have such a concentrated niche. That screams longevity over the other hundreds of other “full service wellness” companies.

Meet Kim Kiyosaki Entrepreneur, investor, and speaker Kim Kiyosaki is the author of Rich Woman: A Book on Investing for Women – Because I Hate Being Told What to Do. She is a champion of women and female-preneurs and, along with her husband Robert Kiyosaki, helps people take control of their finances, escape from the rate race, and move towards ...…


Project managers will have at least a bachelor's degree in business or computer science; certification in project management and/or SAP (systems applications and products) is also highly desirable. Fluency in one or more foreign languages may also be required, depending upon the international market(s) you work with. In addition, in terms of corporate-level management positions, five to seven years of international project management and/or MLM experience will be required.
Keeping with the trend I have here, yes this is another MLM company operating under the nutritional niche; and it comes to us from Utah.  They have a specific product that’s help made them well-known: seed nutrition and the “black cumin seed,” which evidently is very potent for helping fight cancer cells and encourages anti-oxidant benefits, among other things.
If you insist on trying one of these MLM offers, the least you can do is look for proper business registration with BBB, toll free number, and proper address (no Post Office box). Also, you will need lots of family and friends to make it work. As a final step, check the MLM materials for one or more of these "red flags" that are associated with the worst of the offerings:
Market America is just as known for their massive discounted products portal as they are for their crazy rich CEOs. I’m talking Forbes list, mansion in Biscayne Bay and penthouse in Manhattan, celeb bffs, and giant yachts rich…all thanks to MLM. They’ve hit their fair share of SEC-shaped road blocks, but Market America is still going strong at #29 on the DSN Global 100.
Many people may have done quite well for themselves in their network marketing / mlm’s / direct sales companies. But just think, how much better financially they could / would have done if they had started with their company in its infant stage, the beginning!! Well, if that’s something you have dreamed of, wished for, or ever thought about, then the time is NOW!!.
With her departure on Feb. 10, there are only two commissioners remaining on the FTC and the acting chairwoman, Republican Maureen Ohlhausen, is a staunch supporter of self-regulation by MLMs. Trump will appoint three new FTC commissioners, including the chairperson. Whether it’s Ohlhausen or someone else, the next chairperson is also likely to be sympathetic to the MLM cause. The only name floated for the spot so far has been Republican Utah Attorney General Sean Reyes, who was also greeted with glee by MLM shareholders when his consideration was reported by Politico on Jan. 17.
Pyramids are illegal and are based on taking advantage of people. For a person to actually make money in a pyramid scheme, someone else has to lose money. But in network marketing, each person can multiply his or her efforts, skills and talents by helping others be successful. Network marketing has proved itself as part of the new economy and a preferred way to do business here and around the world.
Starting out as a casual customer, and then moving into the business side of the company, Kierston set the pace and laid the foundation for her family’s future when the unexpected happened and they were at risk of losing everything.  Two years later, Kyle joined his wife in her business and, together, they have become million-dollar earners while building a wildly successful Network Marketing business.
MLMs have been made illegal in some jurisdictions as a mere variation of the traditional pyramid scheme, including in mainland China.[10][11] In jurisdictions where MLMs have not been made illegal, many illegal pyramid schemes attempt to present themselves as MLM businesses.[7] Given that the overwhelming majority of MLM participants cannot realistically make a net profit, let alone a significant net profit, but instead overwhelmingly operate at net losses, some sources have defined all MLMs as a type of pyramid scheme, even if they have not been made illegal like traditional pyramid schemes through legislative statutes.[4][19][20]
Check out Rain International. Their products are unique in that they are the only company where their products are seed based. The seeds are the powerhouse of any plant and therefore the most concentrated form of nutrition. Since the seeds are non-gmo, organic and cold pressed they help neutralize free radicals contained within the body, Rain’s products are super compounds. As a strong antioxidant that helps fight oxidation, the products help prevent cellular damage. These seeds give the body the nutrition it needs to lower inflammation levels therefore helping it to heal. They also have an awesome compensation plan: 7 ways to get paid.
If you don’t understand something, ask for more information until it is absolutely clear to you. Your sponsor and other distributors should be willing to answer your questions. Remember that your sponsor (and others above your sponsor's level) will make money if you join the program. So take your time, and resist pressure to join. Be aware of shills — fake references paid by the company or distributor to pretend they were successful earning money through the plan.
Legendary Los Angeles Lakers player, coach, and current president of basketball operations, Earvin "Magic" Johnson is the proud owner of 10 NBA championship rings, is a two-time inductee into the Basketball Hall of Fame, a member of the 1992 United States Men's Olympic gold medal basketball "Dream Team," and in 1996 was named one of the 50 Grea ...…
Well done Melaleuca, they hit over a billion dollars in yearly sales…there’s a reason they are a part of the select few considered to be at the top. Adding to this is their longevity, because they’ve been in the MLM industry for over 20 years, and now they’ve reached the status of the “largest online wellness shopping club” (which can sound fancier than it is, because are they aren’t selling anything more than a fantasy diet pill).
"Network marketing" and "multi-level marketing" (MLM) have been described by author Dominique Xardel as being synonymous, with it being a type of direct selling.[6] Some sources emphasize that multi-level marketing is merely one form of direct selling, rather than being direct selling.[23][24] Other terms that are sometimes used to describe multi-level marketing include "word-of-mouth marketing", "interactive distribution", and "relationship marketing". Critics have argued that the use of these and other different terms and "buzzwords" is an effort to distinguish multi-level marketing from illegal Ponzi schemes, chain letters, and consumer fraud scams.[25]

I will encourage you all to try Rain International products especially RAIN SOUL,a Seed nutrition with phytonutrients,anti oxidants that can fight whatever radicals that might have caused any terminal diseases in your body like cancer and any inflammation,not only in terms of rejuvenating the damaged cells but also increase your wealt with 9ways of compensating you weekly…..check it out many have been made multimillionaires through it.
If you remember those ads for P90X and Insanity, you are not alone because they were something to rave about at one point in time.  They have dropped off a tad, but nonetheless Beachbody is still a well-known name.  The company is so focused on their products, very few people know that they are a network marketing company.  Which can be seen as an advantage for the company’s survival, but they are questionable as a “hot offer” to advertise.
This Podcast is brought to you by Go Pro Recruiting Mastery - the world's #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession. Join us December 4-6 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. You will hear from top thought leaders including Magic Johnson and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners. It's an extraordinary event that you and your team can't afford to miss.
Some multilevel marketing companies sell protein powders to high performance athletes. Others sell multivitamin supplements to pregnant mothers. And some sell memory-boosting supplements to elderly people. The world of health and nutrition companies is vast, and there are all sorts of new niches to explore. New MLMs are springing up every year trying to best the next USANA.

Thank you for this article! I’m with Doterra, like a lot of other people I didn’t start out selling. I just wanted to use the product. But, when you see such great results you can’t help but tell people. I love working for this company!! I have worked for Tupperware, Amway, Jafra, It Works, I never made money like I am with doTerra. Hands down its the best!! I’m working hard to build my business and it is paying off and I’m reaping the benefits for my health. God’s Design for our Natural health care is top notch! I give God all the glory and I couldn’t do this without him.

We are not looking for everyone to join us. We are however looking for people with INTEGRITY. We are looking for Exceptional Leaders who will strive for Excellence. Leaders who will be Influential, making an Indelible impact on their team members. Leaders who will be Motivational, Inspiring others to POSITIVE action. Leaders who will be Instructional, Coaching and Teaching constantly and systematically. Leaders who are Liberal, Sharing of their time and talents with others. Leaders who are Punctual, always Remaining time conscious. Lastly, we are seeking Leaders who will be Relational, Developing healthy relationships with not only with team members, but especially with our customers.
Although there are no specific educational requirements for direct sellers, individuals interested in network marketing may find it beneficial to take advantage of one of the selling and sales management degree programs available in the United States. Some general course topics include professional selling, marketing, prospecting, sales motivation, consumer behavior, customer relations, and sales management.

MLM and direct selling programs also offer very low barriers into entrepreneurship, often providing training, support, and ample encouragement along the way.  As retirees begin to realize they need activities that keep them busy, relevant, in good health, and connected to others, the time, energy and cost to participate in these kinds of companies make them very appealing to large segments of the population caught up in these dynamics.
Then we get to compensation plans behind DS and NM. That would be SLM or MLM as in Single Level Marketing or Multi Level Marketing. In this sense, the expression Marketing is not ideal, it should be Multi Level Sales…in most cases. Depending on your activity, you can either be a selling person, or a referring person where the company, website, Fedex does the sales, payment and delivery. There are many forms of the compensation plan, about 1 for every company with a few overlaps. Some of them are by law illegal, most of them are just messed up from the beginning. Success ratio is about 1:200 for a network marketing company to become great and lasting.
“We decided to take a cash-out refi to pay off unsecured debt,” wrote Kimberly Rotter from San Diego, a personal finance writer and frequent commenter. “The debt was incurred for emergency maintenance on our property, including several months of lost income for my husband while he did the work. Our home was 100 percent paid off so this was a very hard decision for us. However, our alternative was to do the zero percent shuffle on multiple credit cards to handle $85,000 in debt, which I know from past experience is difficult (although possible) at that level. We got a loan against the house for 5 percent and have a very strong and committed 36-month payoff plan. The pain of this choice will hopefully keep us on track. I am optimistic that we will meet our payoff goal.”
With its anti-wrinkle cream and other products, Jeunesse promises to reverse the signs of aging, if temporarily. Jeunesse also sells products to reduce mental distraction, provide nutrition on the go, and help people lose weight. The company’s impressive live demos and message of remaining forever young have placed them on Inc.’s list of fastest-growing American companies.
You can contact me too. I am with a solid company with good honest testimonies about the products. I am in a group with one of my team members who had rheumatoid arthritis. I know her personally. She has had great results. I can let you talk to her if you like. Our products seem to do well with arthritis and other health issues. I would love to talk to you if you are interested.
But the FTC’s newfound toughness may come to naught in the Trump era. There’s little hope, according to both critics and cheerleaders of the MLM industry, that the Trump administration will assume such a strict posture toward Herbalife’s peers. “The more likely scenario is that they just won’t bring a pyramid scheme case,” said Bonnie Patten, executive director of Truth in Advertising, a consumer advocacy group that helped the FTC in its prosecution of Vemma, a nutritional-product MLM that the FTC alleged was a pyramid scheme in August 2015. The case was settled in December on terms similar to the Herbalife one. (Neither Vemma nor Herbalife admitted guilt in their settlements.)
* Why 10 years? Because that amount of time really seems to matter. For example, according to research, since 1956 thousands of different MLM, Multi Level, or Network Marketing companies have opened their doors; and to date only +/- 50 MLM companies have found a way to celebrate their 10th anniversary and still remain in business today. Now, to be completely fair, we should also point out that each and every company on our list was at one time a start-up company too.

I am with Beachbody. There is nothing better than actually being able to watch someone transform their lives. Health and wellness is THE place to be and everyone needs proper nutrition PERIOD. Beachbody has the tools and corporate backing to make it worth a look. Not very often do I find a new customer who has not already heard of at least on Beachbody product from their TV advertising
No matter how you slice it, the only way you will ever build a highly profitable network marketing business is to be willing to MASTER the art and science of sales, marketing and leadership. Because MLM is form of “direct sales” and no one makes a dime until products and services are sold. And it’s that way in every business, not just network marketing.

In a credible Network Marketing company with a well structured compensation plan, there is no such thing as being overpaid OR underpaid. Participants get paid in direct proportion to what they produce in terms of product sales to customers, creation of a network of people doing the same thing, and leadership development. As a Network Marketing Professional with a credible company you get paid exactly what you’re worth – no more, no less.


Pyramid schemes are illegal in all 50 states and in most countries in the world. The reason they’re illegal is because they promise extraordinary returns based on a structure that is unsustainable and will eventually collapse. In order to survive, pyramid schemes require an infinite number of recruits. Since there aren’t an infinite number of people, they always fall apart, leaving the people at the bottom of the scheme with empty pockets.  
People who wonder why network marketing doesn’t work have likely also never joined the best MLM for them at the time or had great upline support and a team around them to get through the often frustrating first few months. Opportunities abound – even publicly traded multi-level marketing companies, who you would think are these huge businesses that give you no attention, have small teams and wonderful leaders to join. It’s just a matter of finding the top teams in the company you’re looking at.
MLMs are also criticized for being unable to fulfill their promises for the majority of participants due to basic conflicts with Western cultural norms.[57] There are even claims that the success rate for breaking even or even making money are far worse than other types of businesses:[58] "The vast majority of MLMs are recruiting MLMs, in which participants must recruit aggressively to profit. Based on available data from the companies themselves, the loss rate for recruiting MLMs is approximately 99.9%; i.e., 99.9% of participants lose money after subtracting all expenses, including purchases from the company."[58] In part, this is because encouraging recruits to further "recruit people to compete with [them]"[4] leads to "market saturation."[22] It has also been claimed "(b)y its very nature, MLM is completely devoid of any scientific foundations."[59]
MLMs make it easy to feel like you’re making friends because you’ve got the MLM in common with fellow participants. Every MLM has their own lingo and Instagram hashtags. Members of the same MLM comment positively on each other’s social media posts and provide encouragement during livestream “parties.” They can then go meet these people in person at giant “extravaganzas” — conferences where they dress to the nines, dance to “Despacito,” and hear motivational speakers. For a stay-at-home mom who spends her days discussing which is the best pup on Paw Patrol, that sounds pretty freaking awesome.
Now, this one I like.  This company doesn’t use your typical Facebook stalking, 3-way calling, auto-shipping tactics.  It has leaped into the future, did its homework and decided to succeed with network marketing, finally.  The company is an affiliate business opportunity for those who are interested in some first-class digital marketing training; and the icing on the cake is that they have a free trial option.
Eric hit it it square on the head with Go Pro. Honestly…the title says it all. If you want to become a professional in network marketing, then his book is a must read. That means non-negotiable. If I want to become a pro, it is a requirement to read;Go Pro;. Get his book now! This book is already destined to become an all-time classic for our profession. --Todd Falcone, Network Marketing Speaker, Coach and Trainer
Network Marketing distributes goods and services through distributors, which may include hundreds, thousands and even hundreds of thousands of distributions networks. Distributors may buy products from the company for pennies on the dollar, and then sell the products, or they may simply sell the goods and/or services for the company and receive a commission on the sales.
Carl Rehnborg is credited as having started the multi-level marketing industry back in the 1930s. After learning about the benefits of dietary supplements in China, Rehnborg came back to the United States and started a company called The California Vitamin Company, which was later rebranded to Nutrilite. Six years after that rebranding, Rehnborg reorganized the company’s structure and the way it sold products into what we know as MLM today.
When you look at our hypothetical MLM, it’s hard not to notice that it pretty much works like a pyramid scheme: you make money by recruiting people below you. Instead of the people below you giving you and the people above you money in order to be part of the MLM — as in a traditional pyramid scheme — you (and the people above you) get a commission off the product purchases the recruits below you are required to make from the MLM. Distributors make little to no money selling product to people outside the company.
The content here is for information purposes only. By delivering the information contained herein is does not mean preventing, diagnosing, mitigating, treating or curing any type of medical condition or disease. When beginning any natural supplementation regiment or integrative treatment, the advice of professionally licensed healthcare providers is advisable to seek.
Pyramid structure is said to exist when you get paid to get a new recruit and there is no involvement of any product. It’s an ill-practice which makes a person earn money by taking advantage of his friends and family. Companies having a pyramid structure model tend to deceive people while making them believe that they’ll earn in future (which they do by deceiving more people). For e.g. a person will be asked to pay $100 to be a part of the company with a promise that he’ll get 25% of every new recruit’s admission fees who he refers. This is a money-making strategy of the company where the participants are at a loss.
If you are open to hearing about a proven opportunity with one of the fastest growing companies situated in 26 countries, voted in top 20 for business opportunies ,voted #1 patent pending compensation plan in the industry 2016 , strategic Branding Strategy offering flexibility and growth for your business long-term as well as no comprise policy on quality for all of its products
Determine if the company is handling advertising and publicity on its own to help create demand for the product. Find out what restrictions are there on where and how you can promote it, such as advertising and websites. There's not a right or wrong answer to that question. A wide-open policy is more flexible for you, and for everyone else, too. If you're prepared to be highly competitive, that's fine, but if not, you may prefer to work with a company whose policy is more restrictive.
That same approach to brand development led him to co-create and executive produce his first television show, Rob & Big on MTV. After the success of this first show, he created Rob Dyrdek’s Fantasy Factory showcasing his Do-Or-Dier mentality towards entrepreneurship. Constantly evolving and taking calculated risks, Dyrdek beat world records with his physical feats while continuing his endeavors, launching several new brands while structuring multi-platform integrated partnerships.
I know there are a few companies, like Mary Kay and Lia Sophia, who have a generally positive image, but there are many more, often built around some investment scheme, which continue to give this sector a bad image. If you scan the Internet, you will find dozens of negative articles, like "What's Wrong With Multi-Level Marketing?", but very few singing their praises.
Ben Thataway, a CEO benefits forever off of his employees and the employees can spend a lifetime and never make the kind of money they can make in network marketing. I know someone personally that beat out 80,000 representatives, did not join the company untli 3 years after it launched and became the top income earner. What you’ve heard, or what you think you know about network marketing is false.

I appreciate this comment. I’m a doTERRA gal. When I signed up I said I’d never sell. I just wanted to buy and use the oils. Then because of my love for them, people started coming to me for education and asking where they could get oils. So now I sell them. I’m not a sales person. I can’t bug my friends about stuff. But I’m growing this business because I truly believe in the products and use them every single day. I may not ever become rich from this and that’s OK with me. I won’t consider it a failure. Every person I help is a success in my book!

Network marketing is a business model that depends upon a network of distributors for growth, such as in multilevel marketing. It is a direct selling method that features independent agents that make up a distribution network for goods and services. Some network marketing systems are based on tiers that denote how many levels deep a sales and distribution network goes. In two-tier or multi-tier examples, the people that make up the top tier of a distribution network are also encouraged to build and manage their own networks of salespeople. Each network creator (or "upline") then earns a commission on their sales revenue, as well as on the sales revenue of the network they have created, otherwise known as "downline." There are many examples of reputable network marketing operations, though some have been criticized of being pyramid schemes and have been banned in some countries as a conduit for consumer fraud.
An issue in determining the legitimacy of a multi-level marketing company is whether it sells its products primarily to consumers or to its members who must recruit new members to buy their products. If it is the former, the company is a legitimate multi-level marketer. If it is the latter, it could be an illegal pyramid scheme. The Federal Trade Commission has been investigating multi-level marketing companies for several decades and has found many that blur the lines between the two. According to industry data, there are 90 million members worldwide, but relatively few earn meaningful income from their efforts. To some observers, that reflects the characteristics of a pyramid scheme.
The end result of the MLM business model is, therefore, one of a company (the MLM company) selling its products/services through a non-salaried workforce ("partners") working for the MLM company on a commission-only basis while the partners simultaneously constitute the overwhelming majority of the very consumers of the MLM company's products/service that they, as participants of the MLM, are selling to each other in the hope of one day themselves being at the top of the pyramid. This creates great profit for the MLM company's actual owners and shareholders.
Much has been made of the personal, or internal, consumption issue in recent years. In fact, the amount of internal consumption in any multi-level compensation business does not determine whether or not the FTC will consider the plan a pyramid scheme. The critical question for the FTC is whether the revenues that primarily support the commissions paid to all participants are generated from purchases of goods and services that are not simply incidental to the purchase of the right to participate in a money-making venture.[46]
Once you have decided to join a network marketing business, first decide which company is best for you. Do market research and buy the package. Upon buying package you will get in touch with your upline who is already in the business. Follow your upline to move forward. Just remember one thing always, network marketing is an awesome business which works on the compound interest theory. Initially you will have to work hard and results are less, but as soon as you grow you will have to work less and you will earn more.
The Federal Trade Commission warns "Not all multilevel marketing plans are legitimate. Some are pyramid schemes. It's best not to get involved in plans where the money you make is based primarily on the number of distributors you recruit and your sales to them, rather than on your sales to people outside the plan who intend to use the products."[21]
First of all, Avon “has” been. Second, Avon really needs to work on their appeal to a younger generation. Third, Avon makes it difficult for representatives to make any money unless you are purchasing a ton of catalogs and knocking on doors. The company really needs to allow representatives to advertise online, and I don’t mean spamming friends on a Facebook or Twitter feed.
Other than that, great info, but I’d have to respectfully disagree with the logic behind not being a part of an MLM. It’s one business model. And whether you want to make it your full time job or just dabble, so long as you find a product and company you love, it can be a great way to diversify your income streams. $5000 a year (or $5) is more than most people make on their 401K, savings or any other conventional ways of investing. It’s an investment, and for those that chose to continue through the plateau, it results in residual income. Don’t like sales? Some of the companies are moving away from the door to door type sales models and putting a lot more emphasis on team building and adding value. And many companies are also discouraging distributors from spamming on social media- again- it comes down to the individual and their own business acumen. We can spend our lives blaming they systems or we can just own ourselves and be grateful for whatever we’ve learned from, and created out of each opportunity presented to us. It’s the choice of the individual at the end of the day but one thing I can say with certainty is that someone who blames MLM for their lack of success is lacking responsibility for themselves in other areas of their life too.
In recent years, the heavily publicized Herbalife battle has shined much-needed light on MLMs. Last year’s scathing John Oliver segment on them has received almost 10 million views, 2 million of them in Spanish. (Immigrant, often undocumented, Latinos trying to make it in the U.S. have become a major target group.) A documentary on Ackman’s Herbalife battle, Betting on Zero, hits theaters March 10 and will be available on demand April 7.
The company is currently facing a class action lawsuit regarding the unfair marketing of their Lash Boost eye serum. The $150 product was apparently sold without proper disclaimers for side effects, which could include “change(s) in iris color, eyelid drooping, itchy eyes, eye/lid discoloration, thinning and loss of eyelashes/loss of eyelash hair, eye sensitivity, eye infections, and vision impairment.”
The legal distinction between MLMs and traditional pyramid schemes has been characterized by many authorities as a legal fiction. Jurisdictions that retain a legal distinction between MLM pyramid businesses versus illegal pyramid schemes retain said distinction on two key distinguishing features: 1) that MLMs always encompass the sale of actual products/services, while traditional illegal pyramid schemes ordinarily do not (though sometimes they do), and 2) that climbing an MLM pyramid is overwhelmingly statistically improbable (especially to its highest participant levels) but not theoretically impossible, whereas climbing a traditional illegal pyramid scheme is both statistically and theoretically impossible.[citation needed]
This podcast is brought to you by Go Pro Recruiting Mastery - the #1 generic training event for the Network Marketing Profession. Join us December 4-6 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. You will hear from top thought leaders including Magic Johnson, John Maxwell and dozens of Million-Dollar Earners. It's an extraordinary event that you and your team can't afford to miss.
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